The records of piracy, which, not many years ago, filled the whole of Christendom with terror and in.
dignatio D, may now be perused w ith feelings of com- Digitized by Google 8 PREFACB ji Bceney, arising from the conviction that the power of the marauders has been broken, and their ravages finally checked.
On these heads the reader will find some important details in the Chapter on the Religion and Literature of the Barbary States. The writings of recent travellers have thrown a fascinating light over some parts of the ancieut Cy« le Daica^— aseetionof the Tripoline temtary^ whidb^ having enjoyed the benefit of Grecian learning at an early period, still displays the remains of architec- tural skill and elegance, borrowed from the inha- bitants of Athens and Sparta.
The position of the eeraral towns composing the celebrated Pen- tapolis, the beauty of the hindscape, the fertility of the soil, and the magnificence of the principal edifices, have been, in the course of a few years, not only illustrated with much talent» but ascertained with a degree of accuracy that removes all reason- able doubt The conjedure B of Bruce are omfirmed, or refuted, by the actual delineations of Beechey and Delia Cella.
In the plains of Tunis^ too^ were fought those battles which confirmed the ascendency of Rome, and laid the foundations of that colossal em- pire, whose territory extended from the Danube to tlie Atlas Mountains^ and from the German Ocean to the banks of the Euphrates* The gigantic con- flict between the two greatest republics of the an- cient world was at length determined among the burn intr sands of Numidia, or on those shores, which, for many centuries, have been strangers to the civi- lisation and arts diffused around their camps by these mighty rivals for universal sovereignty.
Prom the same source have been derived materials for the embellishments introduced into this volume^ and also for improving the Map, which the reader will find prefixed* Edinburgh, March 16, 183d. CONSTITUTION, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION OF THE PHCENICIAX COLOyi L: S Oy THE COAST OF BARBARV. The Religion and Literature vary with the successive Inhabitants — Superstition of the Natives — Human Sacrifu tts continued by the Carthaginians — Worship of IViclcarth, Astarte, and Baal — No sacred Caste or Priestliood — Religious Rites peribrmed by the Chief IVlatfistratcs — Introduction of Christianity — Accom .
Independence of the federated Tow ns, TJtica, Leptis, &c Predc - rainance of Cartliajre — Constancy of her Governinent— Its Pro- gress described— Originally a Afonarchy, but graaually became anstocratical — House of Mai^ro—Rj^rhts of the People exercised in public Asseniljlies— And in the Eloction of Ma;i.stratcs De - cided in all (Questions in which the Kin^fs and Senate could not a^ree— Constitution and Power of the Senate— The select Coun - cil— The Kinn^s or Suffetes— Distinction between the K'lmr and a General — Some Resemblance to Koman Consuls and Hebrew Judges— Wise Administration of Justice— No .judicial Assem - blies of the People — Basis of Power occupied by the Senate 10 CONTENTS. plishedby the Arms of Rome — Different Opinions as to the Date of Conversion and the Persons by whom it wai* effected — i State- ments of Salvian and Au^ustin — Learning and Eloquence of the African Clergy, Tcrtulliau, Cyprian, Lactantius, and the Bishop of Hippo — Works of these Divines — Death of Cyprian and Au - gustin — The Writings of the Latin Fathers chiefly va Uiable as a Record of Usages, Opinions, and Disci})line — Church revived under Justinian — Invasion of the Moslem — Christian Con^regn- tions iral monuments, and were wont to take their pastime surrounded by the mouldering bo« dies of their ancestors.
Every where^ in the soil, in the climate, and in the situation of the coun- try, are seen scattered, with r liberal hand, the ele- ments of prosperity; and it is manifest that the plains, which were once esteemed the granary of Rome, might again, with the aid of modem sdenee, be rendered oxtreiii Lly productive in the luxuries, as well as the necessaries, of human life.
The assiduity of French writera, since the con- quest of Algiers^ has afforded the means of becoming better acquainted than formerly with the geology of Northern Africa, as well as with several other branches of Natural History. Contrast between the present and ancient Condition of the Barbary States — View of ancient Manners— Remains of former Magnifi- cence — Revolutions in that Country at once sudden and entire- Countries comprehended m Barbary— Division, according to He- rodotus—Origin of the Term Barbery— Opinion of Leo Africanus — Emigrants from Asia and Arabia— Monuments which denote an Eastern People— Colonies from Tyre— Foundation of Carthage — Supposed Extent of her Territory— Remark of Polybius— Car- tliaginians encouraged Agriculture— Various Tribes subject to Carthage, or in Alliance with her— The History of Carthage for a long Time includes that of all the Barbary States— First Attempt on Sicily and Sardinia— Ambitious Views of the Cartha- ginians-Provoke the Resentment of Alexander the Great— First Punic War— Carthage besieged— Second Punic War— Character ot' Hannibal— Scipio invades the Carthaginian Territory— Hanni- bal recalled—Is defeated at Zama— Third Punic War— Fall of Carthage— History of J ugurtha— Subdued by the Romans— Ma- rius and Sylla— Pompey and Caesar— Conclusion, Page 17 m CIl WTV.n TT .
In the first instance^ they drew the attention of their readers to the progress of Discovery in that vast continent ; describing the natural features of its seve- ral kin L'doms, the social state of its people^ and there- by bringing into one view all that appeared valuable in the.ohservatio DS of those travellers^ whether in ancient or modem times, who have sought to ex- plore the remote recesses of its interior.